What is ciliary body? Functions of ciliary body.

Ciliary body:

It is the middle part of the uveal tract, which is directly continuous with the choroid behind and with the iris in front.

Functions of ciliary body:

1)      Suspension of lens.

2)      Accommodation.

3)      Secretion of acqeous humour (by non-pigmented cells)

4)      Secretion of some of the glycosaminoglycans of the vitreous body.

[Extra answer: Uveal tract: It is the middle vascular coat of the eyeball, which consists of the choroid, ciliary body and iris, forming a continuous structure]

[Ref: Gray’s Anatomy/38th/1326-1331]

What are the parts of optic nerve? Function optic nerve.

Parts of Optic nerve:       

1)      Intraocular – 1 mm

2)      Intraorbital – 24 mm

3)      Intracanalicular – 9 mm

4)      Intracranial – 16 mm


Total length 5.0 cm/ 50 mm


[Ref: Basak:4th/333]

Function of optic nerve:

            It transmits visual impulse from retina to the visual cortex.

Anatomy Mnemonics

Diaphragm apertures: spinal levels

Aortic hiatus = 12 letters = T12

Oesophagus = 10 letters = T10

Vena cava = 8 letters = T8


Meckel’s diverticulum details

2 inches long.

2 feet from end of ileum.

2 times more common in men.

2% occurrence in population.

2 types of tissues may be present.

Mnemonic: Note: “di-” means “two”, so diverticulum is the thing with all the twos


Diaphragm apertures

“3 holes, each with 3 things going through it”:

Aortic hiatus: aorta, thoracic duct, azygous vein.

Esophageal hiatus: esophagus, vagal trunks, left gastric vessels.

Caval foramen: inferior vena cava, right phrenic nerve, lymph nodes


Liver inferior markings showing right/left lobe vs.vascular divisions

There’s a Hepatic “H” on inferior of liver. One vertical stick

of the H is the dividing line for anatomical right/left lobe

and the other vertical stick is the divider for vascular

halves. Stick that divides the liver into vascular halves is

the one with vena cava impression (since vena cava carries

blood, it’s fortunate that it’s the divider for blood halves).


Bowel components

Mnemonic:Dow Jones Industrial Average Closing Stock Report”:

From proximal to distal:

  1. Duodenum
  2. Jejunum
  3. Ileum
  4. Appendix
  5. Colon
  6. Sigmoid
  7. Rectum

·Alternatively: to include the cecum, “Dow Jones Industrial

Climbing Average Closing Stock Report”.

Bowel components

“Dublin Sisters Ceramic Red Colored Jewelry Apparently Illegal”:

· 2-4 letters of each component:

  • Duodenum
  • Sigmoid
  • Cecum
  • Rectum
  • Colon
  • Jejunum
  • Appendix
  • Ileum

Duodenum: lengths of parts

“Counting 1 to 4 but staggered”:

Memorizing parts of Duodenum
Parts of Duodenum
  • 1st part: 2 inches
  • 2nd part: 3 inches
  • 3rd part: 4 inches
  • 4th part: 1 inch







Carpal bones of hand

She Looks Too Pretty Try To Catch Her

  1.  Schaphoid
  2. Lunate
  3. Triqetral
  4. Pisiform
  5. Trapezium
  6. Trapezoid
  7. Capitate
  8. Hamate


Insertions on Grater Tuberosity

Lady Between Two Major-

  1.  Pectoralis major ,
  2. Latismus Dorsi,
  3. Teres Major


Cranial Nerves

Ooo Ooo Ooo take touch and feel very great vein and heart

  1.  Olfactory
  2. Occulomotor
  3. Optic
  4. trochlear
  5. trigeminal
  6. abducent
  7. facial
  8. vestibulococlear
  9. glossopharyngeal
  10. Vagus
  11. Accessory
  12. Hypoglossal


Structures under Flexor Retinaculum

Tina Deserves A Nice Husband

From Medial to lateral side:

  1. T- Tibialis posterior
  2. D- Flexor Digitorum Longus
  3. A- post. tibial artery
  4. N- tibial nerve
  5. H- flexor hallucis longus


Branches of IX Nerve (Glossopharyngeal)

This Could Pull Me To Love

  1. T – Tymphanic N.
  2. C – Br. to Carotid sinus
  3. P – Pharyngeal Br.
  4. M – muscular br. Stylopharyngeus
  5. T – Tonsillar Br.
  6. L – Lesser Petrosal N.



“I Like, People Understand Over My Very Great Inspiration”:

  • Ileolumbar
  • Lateral sacral
  • Pudendal (internal)
  • Umbilical
  • Obturator
  • Middle rectal
  • Vaginal
  • Gluteal (superior and inferior)
  • Inferior vesicle (uterine in female)


 Rotator Cuff Muscles:

SITS —— Rotator cuff muscles

  1. S=Supraspinatus
  2. I=Infraspinatus
  3. T=Teres minor
  4. S=Supscapularis

Chemical Formula for Extra Ocular Muscles


Lateral Rectus 6th Cranial Nerve

Superior Oblique 4th Cranial Nerve

All other Muscles by 3rd Cranial nerve


Structures Passing through foramen Ovale



  • Mandibular n,
  • Accessory meningeal a ,
  • lesser superficial petrosal n,
  • Emissary vein .

Structures Passing thru foramen rotandum


  • Maxillary division of trigeminal nerve


Deep Muscles of the Back

“I Love Spaghetti – Some More Ragu”:

  • Iliocostalis,
  • Longissimus,
  • Spinalis –
  • Semispinalis,
  • Multifidus,
  • Rotatores

Brachial Plexus

“Really Thirsty? Drink Cold Beer”

  1. Roots,
  2. Trunks,
  3. Divisions,
  4. Cords,
  5. Branches

“MARMU” (terminal nerves):

  • Musculocutaneous,
  • Axillary,
  • Radial,
  • Median,
  • Ulnar

Muscles Inserting into Humerus

“A lady between two majors”

Pectoralis major attaches to lateral lip of bicipital groove,

the teres major attaches to medial lip of bicipital groove,

and the latissimus dorsi attaches to the floor of bicipitalgroove.


Radial Nerve Innervations


  • Brachioradialis,
  • Extensors,
  • Supinator,
  • Triceps.

Median Nerve Innervations


  • Lateral 2 Lumbricals,
  • Opponens pollicis,
  • Abductor pollicis brevis,
  • Flexor pollicis brevis.

Transverse Scapular Ligament

Army over (bridge), Navy under (bridge)

[2] Mnemonic:

Air force over the air but Navy Force Under the water.

  •   Artery goes over and
  • Nerve goes under the ligament


Cubital Fossa (lateral to medial)


  1. Tendon (biceps brachii),
  2. Artery (brachial),
  3. Nerve (medial)


“PAD”: Palmar (hand) muscles ADduct

“DAB”: Dorsal (hand) muscles ABduct

“All For One And One For All” (medial to lateral):

Abductor digiti minimi, Flexor digiti minimi, Opponens digiti minimi, Adductor policis,

Opponens pollicis, Flexor pollicis brevis, Abductor pollicis brevis


Axillary Artery Branches

“Save The Lions And Protect Species”:

  • Supreme/Superior Thoracic Artery,
  • Thoracoacromial Artery,
  • Lateral Thoracic,
  • AnteriorCircumflex Humeral,
  • Posterior Circumflex Humeral,
  • Subscapular (thoracodorsal and circumflex scapular)

Thoracoacromial Artery Branches

“CAlifornia Police Department”:

  • Clavicular,
  • Acromial,
  • Pectoral,
  • Deltoid

Pectoral Nerves

“Lateral is less, medial is more”

  • Lateral pectoral nerve goes through pectoralis major,
  • while medial pectoral nerve goes though both pectoralis major and minor.

Deep Posterior Leg Muscles

“Down The Hatch”:

  • flexor Digitorum longus,
  • Tibialis posterior,
  • flexor Hallucis longus

Medial Malleolus (anterior to posterior)

“Tom, Dick, And Very Nervous Harry”:

  • Tibialis posterior,
  • flexor Digitorum longus tendon,
  • posteriotibial Artery,
  • posteriotibial Vein,
  • tibial Nerve,
  • flexor Hallucis longus

SGT FOS (connections to pes anserinus)

Sartorius (Femoral nerve),

Gracilis (Obturator nerve),

SemiTendinosus (Sciatic nerve)

Femoral Triangle Boundaries

“So I May Always Love Sally”:

  •  Superiorly – Inguinal ligament,
  • Medially – Adductor longus,
  • Laterally – Sartorius

Order of Structures in Femoral Triangle / Groin

(lateral to medial)


  • Nerve,
  • Artery,
  • Vein,
  • Empty space,
  • Lymphatics

Leg Anterior Compartment

“The Hospitals Are Not Dirty Places”:

  •  Tibialis anterior,
  • extensor Hallucis longus,
  • anterior tibial Artery,
  • deep fibular Nerve,
  • extensor Digitorum longus,
  • Peronius tertius

Cruciate Ligament Paths and Insertions

“PAMs ApPLes”:

  • Posterior [passes] Anteriorly [and inserts]
  • Medially; Anterior [passes]
  • Posteriorly [and inserts] Laterally

 Terrible (Unhappy) Triad Knee Injury (American football injury)

“ATM” for money-maker:

  • Anterior cruciate ligament,
  • Tibial(medial) collateral ligament,
  • Medial meniscus

Leg Nerves

“FED”: Fibular nerve Everts and Dorsiflexes the foot

“TIP”: Tibial nerve Inverts and Plantarflexes the foot


Plantar region of foot


Layer 1: Abductor Hallucis, Flexor digitorum brevis,Abductor digiti minimi

Layer 2: Two tendons (Flexor Hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus), Two muscles (lumbricles, quadratus plantae)

Layer 3: Flexor Hallucis brevis, Adductor Hallucis (oblique and transverse heads), Flexor

digiti minimi brevis


Tarsal Tunnel Contents

(superior to inferior)

“Tiny Dogs Are Not Hunters”:

  • Tibialis posterior,
  • flexor Digitorum longus,
  • posterior tibial Artery,
  • tibial Nerve,
  • flexor Hallucis longus

Inguinal Canal Walls

(superior moving around in order to posterior)

“2MALT: 2M, 2A, 2L, 2T”:

Superior wall (roof): 2 Muscles: internal oblique Muscle, transverse abdominus Muscle

Anterior wall: 2 Aponeuroses: Aponeurosis of external oblique, Aponeurosis of internal


Lower wall (floor): 2 Ligaments: inguinal Ligament, lacunar Ligament

Posterior wall: 2Ts: Transversalis fascia, conjoint Tendon

Tarsal Bones

“Traverse City (is) Noted (for) MIchigan’s Lovely Cherries”:


Calcaneus (new row),

Navicular (new row),

Medial Intermediate cuneiforms,

Lateral cuneiform, Cuboid


Hip Lateral Rotators

(Femur Greater Trochanter Attachments)

“P-GO-GO-Q”: Piriformis Gemellus superior Obturator

internus Gemellus inferior

Obturator externus Quadratus femoris



Ribs (superior to inferior), Neck and Sublingual Haitus

(medial to lateral)

“VAN”: Vein, Artery, Nerve



Vagal Nerve Path Into Thorax


“Not Left Behind”: Left is anterior (not behind), Right is


Lung Vessels

“RALS”: Right lung artery is Anterior to broncus, Left lung

artery is Superior to broncus



Structures Piercing The Diaphragm


“I 8 10 Eggs At 12”: T8 = IVC, T10 = Esophagus, T12 = Aorta



Heart Valves


“RAT, LAMB”: Right Atrial Tricuspid, Left Atrial Mitral

(Bicuspid) – or –

“LAB RAT”: Left Atrial Bicuspid, Right Atrial Tricuspid



Spinal Nerves


“C3-4-5 keep the phrenic nerve (or diaphragm) alive”

“C5-6-7 raise your arms to heaven” (long thoracic nerve

roots innervate serratus anterior)



Scrotum Layers (superficial to deep)

“Some Dang Englishman Called It The Testis”:


Skin, Dartos, External spermatic fascia,

Cremaster, Internal spermatic fascia, Tunica




Innervation of the Penis

“S2,3,4 keep the penis off the floor”


Refers to the innervation of the penis by branches of the

pudendal nerve, which is derived

from spinal cord levels S2-4.

Point, Shoot, Score

Parasympathetic for erection, Sympathetic for ejaculation,

Somatomotor for …



Great Vessels



Aortic arch gives off the Brachiocephalic trunk, the left

Common carotid, and the left Subclavian artery


“Boston College Stinks”:


right Brachiocephalic trunk, left Common carotid, left

Subclavian artery



Portal Triad



bile Duct, hepatic Artery, portal Vein



Liver Lobes



The Gallbladder is next to the Quadrate lobe



Pathway After Stomach

“Dow Jones Industrial Climbing Average Closing Stock



Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum, Cecum, Appendix, Colon

(ascending/transverse), Sigmoid colon, Rectum






It measures 1x3x5 inches, weighs 7 ounces and lies

between ribs 9-11.



Thoracic Duct

“The duck is between two gooses.”


duck = thoracic duct

2 gooses = azyGOUS vein and esophaGOUS




“Brent Spiner Gained Lieutenant Commander”


Basale, Spinosum, Granulosum, Lucidum, Corneum



Nasal Cavity Components

“Never Call Me Needle Nose!”:


external Nares, Conchae, Meatuses, internal Nares,




Scalp Layers (superficial to deep)




Connective tissue,


Loose areolar tissue,




Horner’s Syndrome Symptoms


Sunken eyeballs/Symphathetic plexus (cervical) affected,

Ptosis, Anhydrosis,Miosis



Bell’s Palsy Symptoms (Unilateral)

BELL’S Palsy”:

Blink reflex abnomal,


Lacrimation (deficient, excess),

Loss of taste,

Sudden onset,

Palsy of VII nerve muscles



Potentially Absent Muscles

“5 P’s”:

Palmaris longus [upper limb]

Plantaris [lower limb]

Peroneus tertius [lower limb]

Pyramidalis [anterior abdominal wall]

Psoas minor [posterior abdominal wall]



Facial Bones

“Virgil Can Not Make My Pet Zebra Laugh!”:


Vomer, Conchae, Nasal, Maxilla,

Mandible, Palatine, Zygomatic, Lacrimal



Deep Tendon Reflexes Root Supply


S1,2 = ankle jerk

L3,4 = knee jerk

C5,6 = biceps and brachioradialis

C7,8 = triceps



Supraorbital Fissure

Structures that pass through it:

“Luscious French Tarts Sit Naked In Anticipation Of



Lacrimal nerve, Frontal nerve, Trochlear nerve, Superior

branch of oculomotor nerve, Nasociliary nerve, Inferior

branch of oculomotor nerve, Abducent nerve, Ophthalmic

veins, Sympathetic nerves



Cranial Bones

“Old People From Texas Eat Spiders”


Occipital, Parietal, Frontal, Temporal, Ethnoid, Sphenoid



Extraocular Muscles

“LR6 – SO4 – rest3” or “(SO4LR6)3”


LR6 Lateral rectus –> VI abducens

SO4 Superior Oblique –> IV Trochlear

Remaining 4 eyeball movers –> III oculomotor



Branches of Suclavian Artery

“VT is Cold”:


Vertebral, Thyrocervical trunk, Costocervical trunk



External Carotid Artery Branches

“Some Anatomists Like Freaking Out Poor Medical

Students” or “Suzy Always Lays Flat On Pillows Making

Sweets Terrific”:


Superior thyroid, Ascending pharyngeal,

Lingual, Facial, Occipital, Posterior auricular, Maxillary,

Superificial Temporal



Internal Jugular Vein (inferior to superior)

“Medical Schools Let Confident People In”:


Middle thyroid, Superior thyroid, Lingual, Common facial,

Pharyngeal, Inferior petrosal sinus



Facial Nerve Branches

“Please, To Zanzibar By Motor Car” or “Ten Zombies

Bought My Car”


Posterior auricular, Temporal, Zygomatic, Buccal,

Masseteric, Cervical



Trigeminal Nerve – Where Branches Exit Skull

“Standing Room Only”:


Superior orbital fissure (V1), foramen Rotundum (V2),


Ovale (V3)



Ansa Cervicalis Nerves

“GHost THought SOmeone STupid SHot Irene”:


GenioHyoid, ThyroHyoid, Superior mohyoid, SternoThyfoid,

SternoHyoid, Inferior omohyoid



Cervical Plexus – Arrangement of Important Nerves

GLAST”: 4 compass points, clockwise from north on

the right side of neck:


Great Aucular,

Lesser occipital,

Accessory nerve (pops out between L and S),


Transverse cervical



CN V – V3 Innervated Muscles (Brachial Arch 1


“M.D. My T.V.”:

Mastication (masseter, temporalis, pterygoids),

Digastric (anterior



tensor Tympani, tensor Veli palatini


V3 Sensory Branches

“Buccaneers Are Inferior Linguists”:


Buccal, Auriculotemporal, Inferior alveolar,



Facial expressiojn muscles

(Making A Face To Say PSS)


“PSS”: Posterior belly of digastric, Stapedius, Stylohyoid



Lacrimal Nerve Course (Story of 8 L’s)


Lacrimal nerve runs on Lateral wall of orbit above Lateral

rectus, then Lets

communicating branch join in, then supplies Lacrimal

gland, then Leaves it and supplies

Lateral upper eye Lid


Distribution of Collagen Tissue

Distribution of different types of Collagen tissue:

There are 4 types of Collagen Tissue. They are distributed as follows –

  1. Type-1: Bone
  2. Type-2: Cartilage
  3. Type-3: Many places
  4. Type-4: Basement membrane of Kidney

How to memorize these easily:

  1. Type-1: Bone (Here contain One, So type-1)
  2. Type-2: Cartilage (Cartwolage) [If we write cartilage as Cartwolage,it contain two, so type-2)
  3. Type-3: It present in many places (so no need to mention)
  4. Type-4: Basement membrane ( just memorize a this line ” four under the floor” ‘Under the floor ‘ means basement . [ So type -4 is basement membrane]


Anatomy of Stomach

Anatomy of Stomach
  • General Feature
    1.    2 – Orifice
    2.    2 Main Parts
    3.      Borders
    4.     Surfaces
  • Borders:
    1.     Right (Lesser Curvature)
    2.     Left (Greater Curvature)
  • Surfaces:
    1.    Anterior (Ant.-superior)
    2.    Posterior (Post.-inferior)

    Anatomy of Stomach
    Blood Supply of Stomach
  • Blood Supply:(Arterial Supply)
    1.    Left gastric (Branch of Coeliac trunk)
    2.    Right gastric (Branch of Common hepatic)
    3.    Right gastroepiploic (Branch of Gastro-duodenal)
    4.    Left gastroepiploic (Branch of Splenic)
    5.    5-7 Short gastric (Branch of Splenic)
  • Nerve Supply:
    1.    Sympathetic: T6-T10
      1. Vasomotor: Motor to pyloric sphincter
      2. Inhibitory to gastric musculature
      3. Pathway for pain
    2.   Parasympathetic: By Vagus nerve
      1. Motor & secretomotor
      2. Stimulation ? Secretion

Lining Epithelium of Digestive Tract

The digestive tract starts from the oral cavity to anus & the lining epithelium of this tract are following :

# Oral cavity(lip & gum) : Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
# Tongue – Ant.2/3rd : ”
– Post.1/3rd : Pseudo stratified ciliated columnar
# Oropharynx : Nonkeratinized stratified squamous
# Pharynx : ”
# Oesophagus : ”
# Stomach to the
Pectinate line of Anal canal : Simple columnar epithelium
# Pectinate line to White line
of Hilton’s line of Anal canal
(middle 15cm of anal canal) : Nonkeratinized stratified squamous
# Lower part of Anal canal
(lower 8cm of anal canal) : Keratinized stratified squamous

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