Distribution of Collagen Tissue

Distribution of different types of Collagen tissue:

There are 4 types of Collagen Tissue. They are distributed as follows –

  1. Type-1: Bone
  2. Type-2: Cartilage
  3. Type-3: Many places
  4. Type-4: Basement membrane of Kidney

How to memorize these easily:

  1. Type-1: Bone (Here contain One, So type-1)
  2. Type-2: Cartilage (Cartwolage) [If we write cartilage as Cartwolage,it contain two, so type-2)
  3. Type-3: It present in many places (so no need to mention)
  4. Type-4: Basement membrane ( just memorize a this line ” four under the floor” ‘Under the floor ‘ means basement . [ So type -4 is basement membrane]


Definition of Neoplasm & Classification of Neoplasm

# Definition of Neoplasm {Willi’s definition}
: A neoplasm is an abnormal mass of tissue , the growth of which exceeds & is uncoordinated with that of normal tissue & persists in the same excessive manner after cessation of the stimuli which evoke the changes …..


#Behavior Classification of Neoplasm
1. Benign
Eg: -Fibroma,
-Adenoma etc.

2. Malignant
Eg: -Fibrosarcoma,
-Adenocarcinoma, etc

3. Intermediate Grade Tumor
Eg: -Basal cell carcinoma,
-Giant cell tumor of bone,

4. Latent cancer
Eg: -Prostatic adenocarcinoma

5. Carcinoma-in-situ
Eg: -CIS in cervix,
-Bowen’s disease of skin,

6. Spontaneously Regressive Tumor
Eg: -Choriocarcinoma,
-Clear cell carcinoma of kidney,
-Malignant melanoma,

7. Dormant cancer
Eg: -Carcinoma of breast & kidney
-Malignant melanoma, etc.

Diseases of Blood Vessels

  1. Congenital anomalies:
    1. Berry aneurysm
    2. Arterio-venous fistula
    3. Fibromuscular dysplasia
  1. Arteriosclerosis
  1. Atherosclerosis
  1. Hypertensive vascular disease:
    1. Hypertension
  1. Inflammatory disease:
    1. Vasculitis
  1. Raynaud’s disease
  1. Aneurysms & dissection:
    1. Abdominal aortic aneurysm
    2. Syphilitic aneurysm
    3. Aortic dissection (dissecting haematoma)
  1. Diseases of vein:
    1. Vericose viens
    2. Thrombophlebitis & Phlebothrombosis
    3. Superior & inferior vena caval syndromes
  1. Diseases of lymphatics:
    1. Lymphangitis
    2. Lymphadenoma
  2. Tumours:
    1. Benign Tumours
    2. Intermediate Grade Tumours
    3. Malignant Tumours


Cell Injury and Cell Death

Cell Injury:

If the limit of adaptive response to a stimulous are exceeded or in some instance when adaptation is not possible a sequnce of events follows loosely termed as cell injury.      Ref-


Heterophagy is the process of lysosomal digestion of materials ingested from the extracellular environment.
Ref- Robins /7th/32


Autophagy refers to lysosomal digestion of cell’s own components.     Ref- Robbins /7th / 32

Free Radicals:

Free radicals are chemical species that have a single unpaired electron in an outer orbit.                                                        Ref – Robbins 8th / 20


It is a form of cell death designed to eliminate unwanted host cells through activation of a coordinated, internally programmed series of events effected by a dedicated set of gene products.
Ref- Robbins /8th /18


Necrosis refer to a spectrum of morphologic changes that follow cell death in living tissue, largely resulting from the progressive degradative action of enzymes on the lethally injured cell.
Ref – Robbins / 7th/ 21


Gangrene means macroscopic death of tissue with superadded putrefaction.

Ref- Walter & Israel / 7th/ 99

Differential Count of WBC

WBC- Monocyte

Just Identify the slide. In differential count of WBC you have to identify the WBCs ( Neutrophill, eosinophil, Monocyte, Lymphocyte & basophil. The most common cell is neutrophil

Neutrophil WBC

Identifying Points of Neutrophil:

  • Multilobed nucleus
WBC- Monocyte

Identifying Points of Monocyte:

  • The nucleus is kidney shaped

Identifying Points of Lymphocyte:

  • The nucleus is round & large
  • Cytoplasm is less
WBC- Eosinophil

Identifying Points of Eosinophil:

  • Bilobed (2) nucleus
WBC- Basophil

Identifying points of Basophil:

  • No cytoplasm , (basophil is less important, usually absent)



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