Name Some Premalignant Conditions

Premalignant Condition
Premalignant ConditionA) In skin:


  1. Xeroderma pigmentosa
  2. Solar actinic keratosis
  3. Marjolin’s ulcer
  4. Dysplastic nevi
  5. Leukoplakia
  6. Bowen’s disease
  7. Radiodermatitis
B) In Penis:


  1. Leukoplakia of penis
C) Female genital tract:
  1. Endometrial hyperplasia
  2. Cervical dysplasia
  3. Dysplasia of vulva
D) In Breast:
  1. Intra ductal epithelial hyperplasia
E) In Mouth:
  1. Leukoplakia
  2. Paterson-kelly syndrome
F) In Oesophagus:
  1. Barrette’s oesophagus
G) In Stomach:
  1. Chronic atropic gastritis
  2. Adenomatous polyp
  3. Chronic gastric ulcer
H) In Small Intestine:
  1. Crohn’s disease
I) In colon:
  1. Adenomatus polyp
  2. Chronic ulcerative colitis
J) In Liver:
  1. Cirrhosis of liver
K) Lungs:
  1. Bronchial metaplasia & dysplasia
L) In Thyroid gland:
  1. Auto immune thyroiditis
M) In Bone:
  1. Paget’s disease

Clinical Feature of brain tumours

Clinical Feature of brain tumours:
1) Headache
2) Nausea & Vomiting
3) Disturbed vision/ Blurred vision
4) Bradycardia
5) Hypertension
6) Papilloedema
++(1-6 c/f of raised ICP)

7) Progressive focal neurological deficit.
8) Deterioration of level of consciousness.
9) Organic mental changes.
10) Sezures.
11) Late onset of epilepsy.
[Ref: Bailey & Love’s 25th/631]

Causes of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth

A. (Due to Hypochlorohydria /Achlorhydria
• Pernicious anemia
• Partial gastrectomy
• Long term PPI therapy

B. Due to impaired intestinal motility
• Scleroderma
• Diabetic autonomic neuropathy
• Chronic intestinal pseudo obstruction

C. Due to structural abnormalities
• Gastric surgery
• Jejunal diverticulosis
• Enterocolic fistula
• Extensive small bowel resection
• Stricture (e.g. Crohn’s disease)

D. Due to impaired immune functions
• Hypogammaglobulinemia

Causes of Protein losing enteropathy

Means: Excessive loss of protein into the gut lumen, sufficient to cause hypoproteinaemia.

1. With mucosal erosion or ulceration
2. Without mucosal erosion or ulceration
3. With lymphatic obstruction

A. With mucosal erosion or ulceration
• Crohn’s disease
• Ulcerative colitis
• Radiation damage
• Oesophageal, gastric or colonic carcinoma
• Lymphoma
B. Without mucosal erosion or ulceration
• Tropical sprue
• Menetrier’s disease
• Bacterial over growth
• Coeliac disease
• Eosinophilic gastroenteritis

3. With lymphatic obstruction
• Intestinal lymphangiactasia
• Constrictive pericarditis
• Lymphoma
• Whipple’s disease

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