Define AIDS. Mention opportunistic infection in AIDS.

AIDS (Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome):

It is a syndrome complex, which is caused by human immuno deficiency virus (HIV).

Opportunistic infection in AIDS:

A.    Bacterial:
1)    M. tuberculosis
2)    M. avium intracellulare (MAI)
3)    M. kansasii
4)    Nocardia asteroids
5)    Listeria monocytogenes
6)    Salmonella

B.    Viral:
1)    Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
2)    Herpes simplex virus
3)    Herpes zoster
4)    Hepatitis B virus (HBV)

C.    Fungal:
1)    Candida species
2)    Cryptococcus neoformans
3)    Histoplasma species

D.    Parasitic:
1)    Pneumocystic carinii
2)    Cryptosporidium species
3)    Isospora belli
4)    Strongyloides stercoralis
5)    Sarcocystic species

What are the causes of opportunistic infection in AIDS.

Causes of opportunistic infection in AIDS:

HIV infects CD4 + T-cells. As a result there is loss of T-cell response to form cytotoxic T-cell and proliferation and differentiation of B cell. So both the cell mediated and antibody mediated immunity is lost. For this reason opportunistic pathogens cause severe disease.

Features of AIDS related complex (ARS)

What are the features of AIDS related complex (ARS). Mention its importance.

Features of AIDS related complex (ARS):

1)    Unexplained diarrhea lasting longer than a month
2)    Fatigue
3)    Malaise
4)    Loss of more than 10 percent body weight
5)    Fever
6)    Night sweats

Importance of ARS:

Some patients with AIDS related complex subsequently develop AIDS.

Stages of HIV infection

Mention the stages of HIV infection.

Stages of HIV infection:

The clinical picture of HIV infection can be divided into three stages—
1)    An early, acute stage: Fever, lethargy, sore throat and generalized lymphadenopathy. Maculopapular rash on the trunk, arms and legs( but sparing the palms and soles), leucopenia. This stage resolves spontaneously in about 2 weeks.
2)    A middle, latent stage: A long latent period, measured in years, usually ensues. In untreated patient, this stage last for 7-11 years.The patient is usually asymptomatic during this period.
3)    A late, immunodeficiency stage: The late stage is the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This stage is characterized by marked reduction in the CD4 cells and occurrence of opportunistic infection.

Ref: Lange 11th/303

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