Definition of Neoplasm & Classification of Neoplasm

# Definition of Neoplasm {Willi’s definition}
: A neoplasm is an abnormal mass of tissue , the growth of which exceeds & is uncoordinated with that of normal tissue & persists in the same excessive manner after cessation of the stimuli which evoke the changes …..

 

#Behavior Classification of Neoplasm
1. Benign
Eg: -Fibroma,
-Lipoma,
-Osteoma,
-lymphangioma,
-leiomyoma,
-Adenoma etc.

2. Malignant
Eg: -Fibrosarcoma,
-Liposarcoma,
-Osteosarcoma
-Lymphangiosarcoma
-Leiomyosarcoma
-Adenocarcinoma, etc

3. Intermediate Grade Tumor
Eg: -Basal cell carcinoma,
-Ameloblastoma,
-Desmoid,
-Giant cell tumor of bone,

4. Latent cancer
Eg: -Prostatic adenocarcinoma

5. Carcinoma-in-situ
Eg: -CIS in cervix,
-Bowen’s disease of skin,

6. Spontaneously Regressive Tumor
Eg: -Choriocarcinoma,
-Clear cell carcinoma of kidney,
-Malignant melanoma,
-neuroblastoma,

7. Dormant cancer
Eg: -Carcinoma of breast & kidney
-Malignant melanoma, etc.

Cell Injury and Cell Death

Cell Injury:

If the limit of adaptive response to a stimulous are exceeded or in some instance when adaptation is not possible a sequnce of events follows loosely termed as cell injury.      Ref-

Heterophagy:

Heterophagy is the process of lysosomal digestion of materials ingested from the extracellular environment.
Ref- Robins /7th/32

Autophagy:

Autophagy refers to lysosomal digestion of cell’s own components.     Ref- Robbins /7th / 32

Free Radicals:

Free radicals are chemical species that have a single unpaired electron in an outer orbit.                                                        Ref – Robbins 8th / 20

Apoptosis:

It is a form of cell death designed to eliminate unwanted host cells through activation of a coordinated, internally programmed series of events effected by a dedicated set of gene products.
Ref- Robbins /8th /18

Necrosis:

Necrosis refer to a spectrum of morphologic changes that follow cell death in living tissue, largely resulting from the progressive degradative action of enzymes on the lethally injured cell.
Ref – Robbins / 7th/ 21

Gangrene:

Gangrene means macroscopic death of tissue with superadded putrefaction.

Ref- Walter & Israel / 7th/ 99

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