Stages of HIV infection

Mention the stages of HIV infection.

Stages of HIV infection:

The clinical picture of HIV infection can be divided into three stages—
1)    An early, acute stage: Fever, lethargy, sore throat and generalized lymphadenopathy. Maculopapular rash on the trunk, arms and legs( but sparing the palms and soles), leucopenia. This stage resolves spontaneously in about 2 weeks.
2)    A middle, latent stage: A long latent period, measured in years, usually ensues. In untreated patient, this stage last for 7-11 years.The patient is usually asymptomatic during this period.
3)    A late, immunodeficiency stage: The late stage is the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This stage is characterized by marked reduction in the CD4 cells and occurrence of opportunistic infection.

Ref: Lange 11th/303

Mode of transmission of HIV

How HIV is transmitted?

Mode of transmission of HIV:

A.    Sexual transmission (75% – 85% ):
a.    Homo sexual – More common among male
b.    Heterosexual
B.    Parenteral transmission:
a.    By blood & blood product
b.    By contaminated needles
c.    By drug abusers

C.    Vertical transmission:
a.    Trans-placental
b.    During birth
c.    Breast feeding

D.    Probable other methods:
a.    Organ transplantation
b.    Any skin piercing – injection, ear & nose piercing, tattooing, Acupuncture,
c.    By sharing sharp razors, combs and tooth brush. (rarely)

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