Causes of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth

A. (Due to Hypochlorohydria /Achlorhydria • Pernicious anemia • Partial gastrectomy • Long term PPI therapy B. Due to impaired intestinal motility • Scleroderma • Diabetic autonomic neuropathy • Chronic intestinal pseudo obstruction C. Due to structural abnormalities • Gastric surgery • Jejunal diverticulosis • Enterocolic fistula • Extensive small bowel resection • Stricture (e.g. … Read more

Causes of Protein losing enteropathy

Means: Excessive loss of protein into the gut lumen, sufficient to cause hypoproteinaemia. 1. With mucosal erosion or ulceration 2. Without mucosal erosion or ulceration 3. With lymphatic obstruction A. With mucosal erosion or ulceration • Crohn’s disease • Ulcerative colitis • Radiation damage • Oesophageal, gastric or colonic carcinoma • Lymphoma B. Without mucosal … Read more

Tongue depressor

Tongue Depressor


Tongue Depressor
Wooden Tongue Depressor
Curved Metallic Tongue Depressor
Curved Metallic Tongue Depressor
  1. Identify the instrument.
    • Tongue depressor
  2. Mention 2 important uses.
    • Examination of mouth
    • Examination of Throat
  3. Name 4 causes of sore throat.
    • The common cold
    • Laryngitis
    • Tonsillitis
    • Mononucleosis
    • Mumps
  4. Name 3 Causes of Macroglossia
    • Vascular malformation
    • Muscular hypertrophy
    • Lymphangioma

Butterfly Rash

Butterfly Rash

   Describe the clinical finding? What underlying diseases give rise to this condition? Name 4 diagnostic criteria for diagnosis of the condition. Write the modalities of treatment. Answer Sheet:  Describe the clinical finding? C/F: This is a photograph showing Butterfly Rash, What underlying diseases give rise to this condition? Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Name 4 … Read more

Primary Lesions of Skin


Macule: Small spot (Less than 5 mm), different in color from surrounding skin, that is neither elevated nor depressed below the skin surface. Patch: Large spot (>5mm) different in color from surrounding skin. Papule: Small (less than 5mm diameter) circumscribed solid elevation on the skin. Plaque: Large (>5mm) superficial flat lesion, often formed by a … Read more

CURRENT Medical Diagnosis and Treatment 2014

Currennt Medical Diagnosis & Treatment

CURRENT Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2014 Maxine A. Papadakis, Stephen J. McPhee, Eds. Michael W. Rabow, Associate Ed. Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2014 (CMDT 2014) is the 53rd edition of this single-source reference for practitioners in both hospital and ambulatory settings. The book emphasizes the practical features of clinical diagnosis and patient management in … Read more

What is chalazion? Fates of chalazion?

 Chalazion/Hailstone/ Internal hordeolum/ Meibomian cyst/ Tarsal cyst: A chalazion is a chronic, sterile, granulomatous inflammatory lesion caused by retained sebaceous secretion leaking from the meibomian glands or other sebaceous glands into adjacent stroma. Chalazion: Chronic granulomatous inflammation of the meibomian gland.   Fate of Chalazion: Spontaneous resolution. Complications: Increased size and causing mechanical ptosis. Secondary … Read more

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