What are the causes of Bronchiectasis?

1. Congenital or hereditary—
– Cystic fibrosis.
– Kartagener’s syndrome (triad of bronchiectasis, dextrocardia and sinusitis or frontal sinus
– Primary ciliary dyskinesia (including immotile ciliary syndrome).
– Hypogammaglobulinaemia (of IgA and IgG. It causes recurrent infection and bronchiectasis).
– Yellow nail syndrome.
– Young’s syndrome (obstructive azoospermia and chronic sinopulmonary infection,
thought to be due to mercury intoxication).
– Sequestrate segment of lung.
2. Acquired—
– In children, pneumonia complicating measles, whooping cough, primary TB and foreign
– In adults, bronchial neoplasm, pulmonary TB, recurrent aspiration or suppurative pneumonia.
– Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (causes proximal bronchiectasis).
NB: In children, postmeasles or whooping cough are commonly associated with bronchiectasis.
In adult, post-tubercular bronchiectasis is the common one.