Causes of Pulmonary Regurgitation
• Dilatation of pulmonary valve secondary to pulmonary hypertension.
• Secondary to mitral stenosis producing an early diastolic murmur (Graham Steel murmur).
• Rheumatic fever.
• Carcinoid syndrome.
• May be asymptomatic or symptoms of primary disease.
• Features of right-sided heart failure.
• Left parasternal lift.
• P2 may be soft.
• Early diastolic murmur in 3rd or 4th left intercostal space.
• Chest X-ray.
• Teatment of underlying cause.
• In severe regurgitation—valve replacement.